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Test Descriptions

A closer look at our advanced cardiovascular testing options

Ion Mobility
Vitamin D
Omega-3 and -6
4q25-AF Risk Genotype
9p21 Genotype
ApoE Genotype
CYP2C19 Genotype
KIF6 Genotype
LPA-Aspirin Genotype
LPA-Intron 25 Genotype
Additional Tests

Lipoprotein Subfractionation by Ion Mobility

Cardio IQ™ Ion Mobility fractionation is the latest technological evolution in advanced lipid subclass measurement.  It combines high resolution separation of the full spectrum of lipoprotein particles, along with direct quantification of particles in each lipid subclass fraction.

Cardio IQ Ion Mobility separation allows lipoprotein particles to be characterized without any modification of the particles that could potentially impact their apparent size. Ionized lipoprotein particles are electrophoretically separated in a gas phase, distinguishing lipoprotein particles on the basis of size. Size-selected particles are detected and counted by light scattering.

Apolipoprotein B (apoB)
ApoB is a direct measurement of the number of lipoprotein particles, including LDL, IDL, and VLDL

Lp(a) is an LDL particle with an inherited apoprotein (a) variant attached.  Elevated Lp(a) is associated with increased coagulation and incidence of CVD.

Homocysteine is a metabolic by-product of methionine metabolism. Progressively elevated blood levels of homocysteine are a documented risk marker for cardiovascular events.

Lp-PLA2 is a marker for vascular-specific inflammation and also plays a causal role in the vascular inflammatory process, leading to the formation of vulnerable, rupture-prone plaque. Elevated levels have been shown to be powerful predictors of ischemic stroke and heart attack risk.

hsCRP is one of a number of acute phase reactant proteins that increases in response to inflammatory stimuli. In large epidemiologic studies, elevated levels of CRP have been shown to be a strong indicator of CVD.

Fibrinogen is a plasma glycoprotein that can be transformed by thrombin into a fibrin clot in response to injury. The combination of elevated fibrinogen with other CVD risk factors can substantially increase disease potential.

Insulin is associated with the characterization of the Atherogenic Lipid Profile and Metabolic Syndrome. Abnormal fasting insulin, especially when combined with other risk factors, identifies patients at significantly higher risk for CVD.

NT-proBNP is a progressive CVD risk marker with powerful independent prognostic value for detection of clinical and subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Elevated levels indicate the presence of ongoing myocardial stress and potentially an underlying cardiac disorder.

Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin.  Low Vitamin D levels are linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure.  Vitamin D levels may be low for many reasons, such as insufficient sun exposure, eating diets poor in Vitamin D, and obesity.  If levels are too low, Vitamin D supplements may be recommended.

Omega-3 and -6 Fatty Acids, Plasma
An omega-3 fatty acid deficiency, as well as a high Omega-6 to Omega-3 fatty acid ratio, have both been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.  This deficiency can be corrected through ingestion of foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids and/or omega-3 supplementation or therapy. Knowledge of a patient’s omega-3 baseline allows physicians to set goals and monitor the effectiveness of recommended therapy.

4q25-AF Risk Genotype Test
The 4q25-AF Risk Genotype Test helps predict risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardioembolic (CE) stroke.a,b

9p21 Genotype Test
The 9p21 Genotype Test helps predict risk of Early Onset Myocardial Infarction (Early MI), Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), and MI/Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).a,c

ApoE Genotype Test
The ApoE Genotype Test helps predict lipid abnormalities and responsiveness to different dietary fat intake.a

CYP2C19 Genotype Test
The CYP2C19 Genotype Test helps predict response to Plavix®(clopidogrel).a,d

KIF6 Genotype Test
The KIF6 Genotype Test helps predicts risk of a Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) event and event reduction with atorvastatin and pravastatin therapy.a,e

LPA-Aspirin Genotype Test
The LPA-Apsirin Genotype Test helps predict risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) events and event reduction with aspirin therapy.a,f

LPA-Intron 25 Genotype Test
The LPA-Intron 25 Genotype Test helps predict risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).a,g

Additional Tests
Apolipoprotein A1, and Hemoglobin A1c


The 4q25-AF Risk, 9p21, Apo E, CYP2C19, KIF6, LPA-Aspirin, and LPA-Intron 25 Genotype Tests were developed and their performance characteristics were determined by Berkeley HeartLab, a CLIA-certified and CAP-accredited laboratory. These tests have not been approved or cleared by the U.S. FDA.

Plavix is a registered trademark of Sanofi-Aventis Corp.

a. This genetic test may not be useful in all individuals. Supporting data may only apply to certain patient populations. Your physician may consider this test relevant for you and recommend it as part of your health management plan.

b. Association with AF and CE stroke was found and replicated in Caucasian and Han Chinese study populations.

c. Study populations for early MI and MI/CHD include Caucasian and Asian men and women. Study populations for AAA include Caucasian men and women.

d. The clinical impact of the CYP2C19 genotype on the metabolism of specific drugs will vary based on non-genetic factors, such as hepatic and renal status, other medications used (including over-the-counter medications, herbals, and other supplements), alcohol or illegal drug use, race, age, weight, diet, and diseases present in an individual patient.

e. The benefit of statin therapy for KIF6 carriers has only been studied with atorvastatin and pravastatin therapy. Other studies of simvastatin and rosuvastatin indicate that this benefit is not generalizable to all statins.

f. Study populations predominantly consisted of Caucasian men and women 45-79 years of age.

g. Study populations predominantly consisted of Caucasian men and women in Europe. LPA-Intron 25 associated-risk has not been studied in African American, Mexican American or East Asian populations. However, carrier frequencies in these ethnic groups are approximately 2% in African American and Mexican American populations, and ≤1% in East Asian populations.

h. Components of panels can be ordered individually.